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It became more and more obvious that for this purpose it is impossible to rely on
Independent isolated actions of banks. Even earlier by them were undertaken
Some not regular attempts to co-ordinate the actions. One of
Such attempts there was use of the credit certificate of clearing chamber
(the clearinghouse loan certificate) see Sprague, "Crises under the National
Banking System "(U. S. A. National Monetary Commission). For the first time it was
The Majority is entered into practice by the Boston and New York banks in 1860
The banks belonging to Association of clearing chamber (Clearing-House
Association), have joined the agreement which the following said: in
Case when the clearing balance any of banks-participants appeared
Associations pledge on which basis to a creditor bank were paid
Credit certificates of clearing chamber. Certificates brought enough
The high income which varied in limits from 5 to 10 % and went
To the creditor bank holding certificates, instead of the balances given on loan. An essence
Schemes consisted that those banks, whose positions were strong (in other words,
Whose clearing balance was positive), should finance banks,
Were in weak position (whose clearing balance was negative).
This idea has been directed on prevention of such situation, at which everyone
From banks would aspire to strengthen the position at the expense of others. Without the such
The arrangement any of banks could not expand the credit operations
In a situation of a growing demand for cash. On the contrary, all of them would be compelled
To resort to reduction of operations because of fear to lose the reserves in advantage
Other banks. When the system of credit certificates of clearing chamber was
For the first time it is used by the New York banks, its action was accompanied
The agreement on that metal reserves of all banks-participants
Were considered by them as joint fund. It became that
Banks which face the raised demand not from outside other banks,
And from outside the population, could use reserves in critical situations
Less the suffered banks. Such unification of reserves, or as it still named,
"Equalising of reserves", meant that the bank lost possibility to affect on
Size of the individual reserves through reduction of the sum of credits.
During crisis I860 to banks of New York and Boston by means of the credit
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