Playboy with Shadow Icon
Image sizes: 256x256, 48x48, 32x32, 24x24, 16x16
File formats: ICO, BMP, GIF, PNG
Purchase People Icons for Vista now!
View People Icons for Vista now!
Download icon catalog
Tags: jthm icons, i make an icon collage, emo icons layout, become an icon in def jam icon, icons from imageres dll
Legislations, justice and defence, is the core Deep source of a civilisation "(48, with. 24). As a result Huge economy on scales at the centralised Manufacture of the public blessings and services immeasurably increase The sizes of a division of labour and volume of an exchange, paternal win All members of a society. State problems appear, hence, The inconsistent: "the Second problem assumes completely Effective set of the property rights for the purpose of maximisation Cumulative product of a society; the first conducts to attempts To specify such set of fundamental rules, which Would allow the governor to maximise the income (or, if We wish to weaken the precondition about the individual governor, - To maximise the exclusive rent of group or a class, whose As the agent the governor) "(48 acts, with. 24 - 25). Concrete forms of the government will be defined Those restrictions (first of all - transaction costs), in Which it it is compelled to operate: 1. On a military technology status will depend, on what Territory the effective power can extend
The states. (It it is possible to express differently: the sizes of the state
Will be caused by that economy on scales, which
Provides a present status of technics of manufacture
The public blessing "defence".)
2. Infrastructure creation on protection of the property rights
Demands delegation of powers from the central power - it
To agents on places. But agents, naturally, will behave
Opportunistically. Therefore the central power should enter
The rules limiting deviations in behaviour of agents from
Interests of the centre. These restrictions, of course, cannot be
By which such monitoring system is connected. Hence,
Structure and behaviour of bureaucracy (executors of will
To its control.
Economy will induce to introduction in them unequal
Legal regimes. (For example, the general property will be
To be saved for those resources, for which costs on
Specifications of the property rights will be so great that
Much more will exceed potential benefits from an establishment
Exclusive rights to using these resources.)
4. Aspiration of the higher authority to extraction of the maximum
The exclusive rent it will be limited by the potential
Competitors as from the outside (when citizens can emigrate in
Other country), and from within (when there are possibilities for
Revolution fulfilment). Than more well the citizen "substitutes"
The present power, the it is less at it than freedom in circulation with
Them. Therefore the property rights will be distributed on
To groups depending on "contractual force" each of them.
The higher authority will agree to allocate the strongest
Groups the big property rights to the detriment of reasons
5. Besides, in certain cases the state can
To maximise receipts in treasury, establishing
Inefficient structure of the property rights. For example,
The state will trade in monopolies and
Privileges instead of creating conditions for
Active competition, because thus it
Releases itself from expenses on creation and maintenance of the difficult
And expensive system of the taxation.
So, some criteria of distribution of the rights face
Properties - efficiency, relative contractual
Forces, maximisation of the income of treasury: "actually most
Obvious lessons of history consist that the political
Systems have congenital propensity to establish
The inefficient property rights that leads to stagnation
And to decline. To such outcome there are two main reasons. First,
The income taken by governors can be more at
To inefficient structure of the property rights, which, however,
Supposes more effective control and consequently more
Impressive collection of taxes, than at effective structure
The property rights which has high costs on
To the control and regulation. Secondly, governors seldom can
To dare to establish the effective rights
Properties because they would call it discontent
Among a considerable part of citizens and, thus, have made
The position by less reliable. That is even then, when
Governors would wish to establish rules, proceeding from criteria
Efficiency, survival reasons will dictate them other
Course of actions because effective rules would call
Irritation of powerful political groups with
Special interests "(51, with. 422). As believes D.Nort,
It the conflict between problems of the economic speaks
Growth and the majority existing in an economic history
Property legal regimes: "Actually structure
The property rights which maximises the rent for
The governor (or ruling class), is in the conflict with
Structure which would provide economic growth "(48,
With. 28) 11.
Thus both development, and absence of economic growth
Has destabilising influence on the state and
Dominating system of relations of the property. In the first
Case technical progress and expansion of the markets change
Developed system of the relative prices that strengthens
Pressure of groups which could benefit by these
Changes, on the state for the purpose of revision existing
Legal regime. These groups direct more resources on
Political ends to realise economy
Copyright © 2006-2016 Aha-Soft. All rights reserved.
Individual Ready Icons
You can buy individual icons to suit your needs. Each icon is $1 when purchased individually.
Icon Usage Agreement
Add professionally crafted toolbar icons to your software projects. Program Toolbar Icons
are instantly available, royalty-free graphics of items, actions and symbols that are typically used in software toolbars.
Developing software for hotel industry is quite a challenge, and rarely there is time to think about GUI for your project. With Standard Hotel Icons
you will momentarily get all the graphics you need at a reasonable price.
If you are searching for a perfect-looking set of menu icons for your brand-new or redesigned program, be sure to try Basic Toolbar Icons
! This pack contains images for Schedule, Folder, Update, New etc.
Software Toolbar Icons
is a pack of top-notch handmade icons designed by experienced artists for developers and webmasters. This icon collection represents a broad range of software-related subjects.
24x24 Free Button Icons
set has all the images that are required for your web project or software toolbar.