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The account of consequences from an exhaustion of resource base, because If for prevention of full destruction of animals someone The decision on decrease in intensity of hunting, it it will make Will benefit on itself, and to other members of a tribe, which Will continue to realise the general laws still On animals living in wood, only already in more Favorable conditions of the decreased competition.
Resource, it is necessary to induce individuals to change
Existing structure of the property rights. As mark And.
- and G.Demsets, being internally astable,
The municipal property evolves in a direction
Either to private, or to state (7, with. 20). In the first
Case the general resource is split up for individual parts (wood
Shares on sites, animal if it is possible, are branded and
Etc.) and the stimulus to superuse disappears. In the second
Case change concerns is not right ex ante, and the rights ex post:
For example, all killed animals it to be considered as the general
Property of a tribe, instead of extraction of separate hunters, and
Share between all members of a tribe "on justice".
So the problem of superuse of a resource recovers it
Underexploitation owing to motivation falling: each member
Tribe it becomes interested, that in hunting was engaged not
It, and others.
This new problem of evasion from socially useful work
Dares or on ways of direct regulation of behaviour
Members of a tribe (that conducts finally to the state
Properties), or on ways of indirect regulation,
Directed on education at them the corresponding valuable
Norms: "Attempts to solve a problem of a rarity by means of
Reductions of volume of the rights inevitably should to conduct to more
To society "(7, with. 24).
To the comparative analysis of systems of the general and a private property
The extensive empirical literature (28) is devoted. It it
- underlines that, as co-owners of the general
Properties are deprived exclusive rights to reception of fruits
From investment of time and means in the general resource, at
They practically are not present stimulus to its preservation (28, with. 6).
Municipal pastures, the hunting grounds, woods, the rivers
Are maintained more intensively and are exhausted faster, than
As appears from numerous empirical researches,
The general property with other things being equal assumes
Reduction of volume of investments, prevalence of more labour-consuming
Technologies, lower labour productivity, high
Costs of the opportunistic behaviour, more limited
Time horizon at decision-making, predisposition to
To harvesting before their terms
Maturing, preference of earlier grades of these cultures
(28, with. 5 - 9). For the general property are characteristic
The numerous not price regulations serving by a substitute
Those self-restrictions which would be entered by owners in
Conditions of the individual property (restriction on the size
Plough, size of cells in fishing nets, an establishment
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