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Works with smaller return, than from it it is required on
In the conditions of joint work by the whole group, or, as
A.Alchjan and G.Demsets, (6 "command" named it. For example,
How to allocate the personal contribution of each worker to the cumulative
Result of activity of "command" of factory or governmental
Let's tell, to judge productivity of many workers not on
To result, and on expenses (like duration of work),
But also these indicators pretty often appear inexact.
At asymmetry of the information (the subordinate precisely knows, how much
By it it is enclosed work, and the head only approximately)
Exist both stimulus, and possibilities for job from the smaller
If the personal contribution of each agent to the general result
It is measured with the big errors its compensation will be
It is poorly connected with the valid efficiency of its work.
From here - the negative stimulus pushing to
The agent is expensive, then in known borders
It will operate uncontrolledly, following own
To interests, it is far not in all coinciding with interests
Heads. From here - possibility to "shirk" (in
Safety limits). Therefore both in private concerns, and in
Government agencies the special difficult are created
And expensive structures into which problems enter the control
For behaviour of agents, detection of cases of opportunism,
Imposing of punishments etc. Reduction of costs
Opportunistic behaviour - the main function
Considerable part of administrative personnel of the various
The second form of opportunistic behaviour -
"Extortion" (holding-up). Possibilities for it
Appear when some production factors
Long time work in close cooperation and so
"Get used" to each other that everyone becomes
Irreplaceable, "unique" for other members of "command".
It means that if any factor will decide to leave
"Command" other participants of cooperation cannot find
To it of equivalent replacement in the market also will incur the irreplaceable
Losses. Therefore at proprietors unique (in relation to
To the given group of participants) resources there is a possibility for
"Blackmail" in the form of threat of an exit from "command". Even when
"Extortion" remains only possibility, it always
It appears it is interfaced to real losses. First,
Considering "extortion" threat, participants of "command" will be
To avoid long-term investments. Secondly, that
To insure itself from this danger, they will aspire
To conclude long-term contracts, stipulating in them conditions
Exit from "command", penal sanctions for the premature
Exits etc. (The most radical form of protection from
"Extortion" - transformation interdependent
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