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Complex of characteristics. In the exchange certificate are inevitably considered
Only some of them, and accuracy of their estimation (measurement)
Happens extremely approximate. Sometimes the interesting
Qualities of the goods in general are immeasurable and for their estimation it is necessary
To use substitutes (for example to judge taste of apples on
"Actually any goods offered on sale, not
It is free from costs for measurement of its properties "(11, with. 28).
Here expenses for the corresponding measuring concern
To the technician, on carrying out actually measurements, on
Realisation of the measures, having for an object to secure the parties from
Errors of measurement and, at last, loss from these errors. Costs
Measurements grow with increase of requirements to accuracy.
The enormous economy of costs of measurement has been reached
Mankind as a result of the invention of standards of measures and
Scales. Besides, by the purpose of economy of these costs are caused
Such forms of business practice, as guarantee repair,
Firm shortcuts, acquisition of a consignment of goods on samples and
4. Costs of the specification and protection of the property rights. In this
Category expenses on the maintenance of courts, arbitration enter,
State structures, expenses of time and it6
The broken rights necessary for restoration, and also
Losses from their bad specification and unreliable protection.
Some authors (D.Nort) add here expenses on
Education of members of a society in the spirit of observance of the standard
Unwritten rules and ethical standards is much more
In the economical way of protection of the property rights, than
The formalized legal control.
5. Costs of opportunistic behaviour. It is the most latent
And, from the point of view of the economic theory, the most interesting
"Opportunistic behaviour" - O.Uiljamsonom has been entered.
Opportunistic it is considered the behaviour evading from
Contract conditions. Here carry various cases of lie,
Arise because of asymmetry of the information and are connected with
Difficulties of an exact estimation of post-contract behaviour
Other participant of the transaction. Maximising utility
Individuals will always evade from treaty provisions (it.
- . To render services of smaller volume or the worst
Qualities) in those limits in what it does not threaten them
Distinguish it the cores of the form of opportunistic behaviour.
The first carries the name of "moral risk". "Moral risk"
Arises when in the contract one party is necessary on
Another, and reception of the valid information on its behaviour
Demands the big costs or in general it is impossible. Most
Widespread version of opportunistic behaviour
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