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Not claimed and non-realised from the economic point of view. Than more close
Scientific researches to knowledge borders, especially uncertain
There is their economic result.
Secondly, realisation of the economic rent (profit) even from commercially
Profitable results of researches it is possible only in that degree, in what
Copyrights can be legally protected and economically provided on
Discovery. This problem solved more often by means of patents and
Copyrights, gives to inventors and innovators only limited possibilities
Receptions of incomes. So, in corporations the individual inventor or
The researcher inevitably gives all or a part of the rights of the company. In
The basic researches which results usually are not patented, and
Are published openly, often happens difficult to establish a priority any
The researcher in comparison with its colleagues, as researches in
One area conduct usually some groups of scientists. Thus
Uncertain and it is frequent non-realised individual profit on the scientific
Opening it is inevitable less than that considerable public return, which
Bring opening and radical innovations. It is possible to consider this fact
Proved theoretically and empirically, on numerous examples (from
Penicillin to the copier).
From distinction between individual and public return of expenses for the scientific
Researches the third basic position of economy of a science - follows about
Inability of the market (market failure) to provide an adequate investment of resources
In a science, i.e. that the market, for lack of special stimulus, in
Principle cannot guarantee optimum or socially comprehensible level
Scientific expenses (underinvestment in R&D). This argument is
Central in an economic substantiation of state regulation of sphere
Scientific researches last 40 years.
In practice three basic schemes of overcoming are realised by the state
Specified "weakness" of a market mechanism.
(1) Direct participation of the state in manufacture of knowledge by the organisation
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